Agriculture in India - Prosperity arises from farms and major crops in India

“Food security attaches immense importance to better agricultural conditions. India's geographical structure and natural diversity have been successful in giving an effective form of agriculture. The fertile land is capable of providing food to the large population of the country and that is why India is self-sufficient despite its vastness.”

Agriculture in India - Prosperity arises from farms and major crops in India

We need to know about the Agriculture in India - Prosperity arises from farms and major crops in India, which is grown by the farmers.

50% of India's population is mainly dependent on agriculture. Niti Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant has said that if India's GDP is to increase by 9-10% in the next 30 years, this cannot happen without revolutionizing agriculture. He has given his opinion on eliminating middlemen in agricultural production to boost the income of farmers.

Agri-region is a geographical concept. According to geographers, it is a region that differs from other regions in a specific criterion. The division of agri-territories is a dynamic process that is variable with place and time. This is an area where uniformity is seen in terms of agricultural land use, farming practices, and crop models.

Many experts have tried to outline Agriculture in India.

Classification of Agriculture in India- On the basis of geo-climatic diversity, characterization of crops, and animal husbandry.

Classification of Agriculture in India

MS Randhawa explains that Temperate regions of the Himalayas include Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in the west, and Arunachal Pradesh and Upper Assam in the east. The major crops of its eastern part are tea and paddy and the major crops of the western part are apple, cherry, pear, almond, and walnut.

Northern Arid (Wheat) Area

This area is spread in the irrigated parts of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, North-Western Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan. Major crops of this region are wheat, corn, cotton, gram, paddy, sugarcane, etc.

Eastern Arid (Paddy) Region

This region comprises the main parts of Asom, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, and coastal Andhra Pradesh. The main crops of this region are paddy, jute, tea, and sugarcane.

Western Arid Zone (Malabar) 

This region extends from Maharashtra to Kerala. Paddy, food crops and coconut, rubber, coffee, cashew, and spices are the major cash crops.

Southern coarse grain region 

This agricultural region is spread over Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, southern Uttar Pradesh (Bundelkhand), eastern Maharashtra, western Andhra Pradesh, eastern Karnataka, and western Tamil Nadu. The major crops of the region are millet, cotton, groundnut, oilseeds, and pulses.

Classification of Agriculture in India.

P. Sengupta and GS Dayak's - Their division is based on agriculture and agricultural inputs and outputs (labor, irrigation, crop intensity etc.).

Himalayan Agricultural Area

Under this the region, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kumaon Himalaya, Darjeeling, Asom Himalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, etc. come under this region. The fruit is produced here. Major crops are wheat, paddy, corn, potato.

Arid Agriculture Zone

This region includes Rajasthan, Western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and the Western Ghats. Punjab and Haryana have canals and tube wells for irrigation. The major crops of this region are wheat, paddy, sugarcane, corn, pulses, oilseeds, and millet.

Alpadapra Agricultural Area

This region is spread over the upper and middle Gangetic plains and a narrow central strip (Bundelkhand to Tamil Nadu plateau) and the eastern coastal plain. Wheat, paddy, maize, gram, corn, barley, cotton, groundnut, oilseeds, and tobacco are the major crops of the region.

Humid Zone

This region is spread over West Bengal, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Asom, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Tripura. The average annual rainfall in this region ranges from 100 to 200 cm. The main crops of this region are paddy, jute, tea, oilseeds, wheat, rubber, and spices.

Agro-climatic regions of India

Agro-climatic regions of India

There are many variations in geo-climatic, socioeconomic, and agricultural practices in India. Variations in geo-ecological and socio-economic conditions have influenced agricultural activities.

The Planning Commission and the National Remote Sensing Agency have divided the country into the following 15 agro-climatic regions for agricultural planning.

• Western Himalayan Region

• Eastern Himalayan Region

• Sutlej-Yamuna Region

• Upper Gangetic Plain

• Middle Gangetic Plain

• Lower Gangetic Plain.

• Eastern plateau and hills

• Aravalli Malwa Highlands

• Plateau of Maharashtra

• Deccan interior

• Eastern Coastal Plain - Gujarat Region

• Western Rajasthan

• Islands (Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Maldives)

Agro-ecological regions of India 

The concept of the agro-ecological region is actually a modified form of agro-climatic regions.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the state of agriculture, the climate is a land unit based on the dominant bio-climate and yield period, which is suitable from the climatic perspective for certain crops.

On the other hand, an agroecological region is a unit of land located in an agro-climatic zone, which is formed after imposing it on the type of soil and its condition (on which the yield period depends). That is, due to soil conditions there can be more than one agro-ecological region in the same agro-climatic region. in India. This method has been adopted for the creation of agro-ecological regions.

Brief description of agro-ecological regions of India 

Farming with tractor in India

Western Himalaya, the cold-dry ecological region, where shallow soil is found and the growth period is less than 90 days.

Western The Himalayas, warm Alpena (Eye which includes very humid) eco-region, brown forests , and ash soils, whose growing period is between 180-210 days.

Eastern The Himalayas, warm, very humid, brown, and red mountain soil with a growing duration of more than 210 days.

North-Eastern hilly (Purvanchal) warm, extremely humid conditions region, red and laterite soil with a growing duration of more than 210 days.

Eastern coastal plain, warm alpine to semi-arid ecological region, coastal alluvial soil, with a growing duration of 90–210 days.

The Western Ghats and coastal plains, are wet, very humid ecological zones, with red, laterite, and alluvial soil, with a growing duration of between 90-210 days.

Andaman and The Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep, warm wet to very wet island ecological zone, red loam, and sandy soil with a growing duration of more than 210 days.

Eastern (Chota Nagpur) plateau and the Eastern Ghats, warm alpine ecological region, red and laterite soils, the growth period is 150-180 days.

Eastern Plains, the warm alpine (humid) ecological region, alluvial created soil, which has a growing duration between 180-210 days.

Plains of Bengal and Assam, warm to humid alpine to moist (including very humid) ecological zones, alluvial created soils with duration ranging between 180-210 days.

Western Plains, Kutch, and parts of Kathiawar Peninsula, Thermal Dry Ecological Region, Desert, and Saline Soil, and the growth period is less than 90 days.

Deccan Plateau, the warm-arid ecological region, with red and black soil, the growth period is less than 90 days.

The Northern Plains and the Middle Highlands comprise Aravalli, a warm semi-arid ecological zone, with alluvial soils, where the growth period is between 90–150 days.

Northern Plains, the warm alpine (dry) ecological region, alluvial created soil, with a growing duration of 150–180 days.

Central highlands (Malwa, Bundelkhand and eastern Satpada), warm alpine ecological zone, red and the black soil, with a growing duration between 150-189 days.

Eastern plateau (Chhattisgarh), warm alpine ecological zone, red and yellow soil, with a growing duration between 150-180 days.

Central (Malwa) highlands, Gujarat plains, and Kathiawar peninsula, warm semi-arid ecological zone, medium, and deep black soil, where the growth period is between 90-150 days.

Deccan Plateau, a warm semi-arid ecological region of shallow and medium (including deep) black soil, with a growing duration of 90–150 days.

The Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu Highlands and Deccan (Karnataka) Plateau, warm semi-arid ecological zone, red loam soils where the growth period is between 90-150 days.

India's major food crops


It is mainly an agricultural crop called 'Since June' It is sown in the middle of August and due to climatic compatibility in the southern states and West Bengal, two or three crops of paddy are taken in an agricultural year called Aas, Aman, and Boto. The temperature for this should be 23–29 °. The three major states in paddy production are West Bengal, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh.


It is mainly a rabi crop. It is grown mainly in the alluvial soil of the vast plain. The Green Revolution has had the greatest impact on wheat agriculture. The major producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana.


It is mainly a kharif crop but it is also grown in Rabi in some areas. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Corn production Maharashtra is the major state.

Jowar(Sorghum vulgare)

This is the third major important food grain. It can also be grown in adverse conditions. The black clay soil of peninsular India is best for this. It can be grown from heavy and light alluvium to yellow, brown, loam, and sandy soils. Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Madhya Pradesh are the three major producing states of Jowar.


It is mainly a crop of dry areas. Millets constitute 92% of the agricultural area in the country and production is received only from the states of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, and Maharashtra. 


Pulses include many food grains, which are rich in leguminous and herbaceous proteins. They maintain nitrogen fixation and soil fertility. India is the largest producer of pulses in the world.


Gram has 61.5% carbohydrates and 21% protein. The well-used loam soil for the production of a gram is considered to be the most useful. Grams are sown in mid-October-November and harvested in March-April. It is grown alone or in mixed form. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh are the three top-producing states of a gram.

Pigeon pea

Due to its long roots, it is seen as the savior of subsoil. It is a year-round crop, which is sown in May-July and harvested in January-April. It is often grown as a mixed crop. The top three states producing arhar are Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.

India's major cash crops

India's major cash crops

Cash crops include commercial crops that are sold directly or semi-processed by farmers for income.


Sugarcane is planted in only 251% of the country’s area. But it provides 7% of the total agricultural production value. India ranks second after Brazil in sugarcane production. The top three sugarcane-producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka. Apart from the sugar good, Khandasari, the molasses derived from it is used in the manufacture of alcohol and bagasse in the paper industry.


Production of cotton mainly in black soil. it happens. It is mainly a Kharif crop. Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh are the leading states in cotton production.


It is a major commercial crop in the north-eastern part of the country. Jute is mainly a Kharif crop. It is a tropical plant suitable for a warm and humid climate. There are two varieties of jute in India - white jute and toasta jute. Its cheap and durable fiber is used in the jute industry to make a sack, sacks, carpets, rope, cables, mattresses, etc. India is the largest producer of jute in the world. The top three jute-producing states are West Bengal, Bihar, and Asom.


Tobacco was brought to India by the Chinese. Today, India is the third-largest producer of tobacco after China and Brazil. Two varieties of tobacco are grown in India. Nicotiana tebacum - Nicotiana rustica Tobacco producer The top three states are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Karnataka.


India is the largest producer of oilseeds in the world. Madhya Pradesh occupies the top position in oilseed production in the country. Oilseeds are the major source of fats in Indian food, whose supply is mainly groundnut, soybean, and rapeseed. Mustard, sunflower, rapeseed, sesame, linseed, castor cottonseed, etc. are made. The top three oilseed producers are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Gujarat.

Plantation Crops

Plantation agriculture is the single cultivation of tropical crops grown on a commercial basis using new agricultural techniques and machines, introduced by European landowners during the colonial period.


The hot and humid climate is favorable for the coffee plants. Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu are the most coffee-growing states in South India. India ranks sixth in coffee production in the world. C and C are Arabica and Cofia robusta is the main character of Kahwa.


India is the largest producer and consumer of black tea in the world. Generally, the tea grown at high altitudes has a good taste and aroma. Tea of ​​the country. 75% of the area and production is provided by Aso and West Bengal only. Among the tea-exporting countries, India ranks third after Sri Lanka and China.


Hot and moist the climate is favorable for rubber plants. The rubber plant is first grown in a nursery. They are planted in the plantation at a length of 0.4 to 06 m. India is the fourth producer of natural rubber in the world and was the second-largest consumer in 2012. Kerala has a monopoly in rubber production in India.


India is the third-largest producer of coconut in the world after Indonesia and The Philippines. Fruits obtained from coconut are obtained from cooking, light, and body oil, and vegetable ghee. The top three coconut-growing states are Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka.


India ranks second in silk production in the world. The three leading states in silk production in India are Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal. The production of silk is obtained by silk pests. These silkworms are reared on the leaves of mulberry, mahua, sal, safflower, etc.

List of Crop producing states in India


Top three states in crop production



West Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh


Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana


Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh


Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana


Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra


Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh


Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka


Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka


Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh


West Bengal, Bihar, Assam


Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka


Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat


Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu


Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan

Rapeseed and mustard

Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh


Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra


Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka


Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West

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