If you want to know the Indian Parliamentary system and how it works.

India is made up of union states, which are full sovereign, social, secular, democratic republics and have a parliamentary system of government. The Parliament is the highest legislative body in India. It consists of the President and both the Houses - Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The President has the power to summon and adjourn the session of Parliament as well as dissolve the Lok Sabha.

If you want to know the Indian Parliamentary system of India, then definitely read this article once.

Indian Parliamentary system of India

As you all know that the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950 and the first general election was held in the year 1951-52 after the new Constitution of India came into force. The first elected Indian Parliament came into existence in April 1952 and started its work in the creation of a new India.

An urgent point - Article 87 (1) of the Constitution provides - "The President shall address both the Houses of Parliament simultaneously at the beginning of the first session after every general election to the Lok Sabha and give reasons for his call in Parliament."

In the case of the first session after each general election to the Lok Sabha, the President addresses both the Houses of Parliament together after taking oath or affirmation by the members and after the Speaker is elected. No other work is done until the President addresses both the Houses of Parliament assembled together and the Parliament is told the reasons for its call.

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha is the body of public representatives. The direct election of its members is generally done once every 5 years by adult people above 18 years of age from the voting system. The minimum qualifying age for membership of the House of the Lok Sabha is 25 years. According to the Constitution, not more than 530 members elected by direct election from the regional constituency of the States in the Lok Sabha, not more than 20 members to represent the Union Territory and if the President is of the opinion that the representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha is sufficient. If not, then more than two members of the community nominated by the President are included.

The limit on the number of members elected by direct election from the regional constituency of the states may be increased if it is due to the reorganization of the states by an Act of Parliament. The normal term of the Lok Sabha is five years but it can be dissolved earlier by the President. The normal tenure can be extended by an Act passed by the Swai Parliament during the period when the promulgation of emergency comes into effect under Article 3522 of the Constitution. This period cannot be extended more than one year at a time and cannot be extended more than six months in any way from the termination of the promulgation.

A Presiding Officer is elected from among the members of the Lok Sabha and is called the Speaker. Members of the House also elect a Deputy Speaker to assist the Speaker. The proceedings of the Lok Sabha are the responsibility of the Speaker.

Rajya Sabha

The upper house in India has been rated as a Rajya Sabha parliament. Its members are not directly elected by the public but are indirectly elected by the legislatures of various states. There is a fixed number of members for each state. The President nominates 12 members who have earned distinction in the fields of literature, art, science, and social services.

The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house. It cannot be dissolved but one-third of its members retire after every two years. The Rajya Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 3 April 1952. Went and had its first meeting on May 13 of the same year. The Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. They are elected by members of the electoral college. The electorate consists of members of both houses of parliament. The Deputy Speaker is elected from among the members of this House. 

Disqualification of Member of Parliament

According to the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1985, as amended by the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 2003, a new provision is known as anti-defection law, disqualifying Members of Parliament on the basis of party changes. The definition is incorporated by the constitution.

Para 8 (1) of the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution empowers the Presiding Officers of both the Houses to make rules to implement the provisions of this Schedule.

Under this rule, any elected Member of Parliament who has been elected as a candidate standing by a political party, who is a member of a political party while taking his place, shall be disqualified on the basis of change of party if he is from such political party. Relinquishes his membership voluntarily or does not vote or participate in the election contrary to any direction of such a party.

Any independent member of Parliament or State Legislature will be disqualified. If he joins any political party after his election.

The question of whether a member of a House of Parliament or a State Legislature has become eligible for disqualification will be decided by the Presiding Officer of the House; If the question is related to the Presiding Officer himself, it will be decided by the member of the House elected in this behalf by the House.

Members of the Lok Sabha (Disqualification on the basis of party change) Rules, 1985, by the Speaker in the House by rules made under the Tenth Schedule. It is left to the leaders of the legislative party to submit a statement of the names of the members of such a legislative party to the Speaker.

The leader of the legislative party is also expected to inform the Speaker about the changes in the strength of the party or its rules, regulations, constitution, etc.

Where a member of any political party votes in the House without prior permission of the political party in each case against the instruction given by such political party or person or authority or is absent from the House at the time of voting, The leader of the legislative party concerned or whatever the situation may be, is expected to inform the Speaker in the matter whether such voting or such absence has been waived by such political party, person or authority.

Functions of parliament

The main function of both houses is to pass legislation. Before any bill is enacted, it has to be passed by both the Houses and the President's permission has to be obtained. The Parliament can legislate on the subjects mentioned under the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India. Broadly, there are such important subjects about the Union, which are administered on an all India basis for convenience, efficiency, and security reasons.

In addition to passing the legislation, Parliament can control the administration of the country and protect the freedoms of the people through resolutions, adjournment resolutions, discussions and questions addressed to the ministers by the members.

Question Hour

Members of Parliament for a certain period during the proceedings of the House. Questions have been given to ask and the ministers of the government those questions. Is obliged to answer. Generally, the first hour of a Lok Sabha meeting is for questions and is called the Question Hour.

The Question Hour has a special significance in the proceedings of Parliament. Asking questions of the inherent and free parliamentary rights of members and democracy. Is a basic feature. During the Question Hour, members can ask questions on every aspect of administration and government activities.

There are four types of questions - starred, unstarred, short notice questions, and questions addressed to non-government members who are asked during the Question Hour. A starred question is one to which an oral answer is sought by a member in the House, while an unstarred question is one to which the member wants a written answer. Supplementary can be asked by the members after the answer to the starred question, which is answered by the Minister in the House, supplementary questions are not allowed to be asked in relation to the statement, the same type of questions should be asked on written notice of clear days.

In addition, Members can ask short notice questions in Parliament on short notice. These questions should be asked orally within the House after the Question Hour or in the first place on the agenda if there is no Question Hour, at the minimum notice prescribed for starred and unstarred questions. If the question is of urgent importance in the opinion of the Speaker, it is asked to the Minister concerned.

A question can also be addressed to a non-official member but it is when the subject matter of that question is related to a bill, resolution or any other matter related to the business of the House for which that member is responsible. is. In case of such questions. The procedure is the same that is followed in the case of questions addressed to a minister with such changes as the Speaker deems necessary.

Parliamentary debate

The official account of the proceedings of Parliament, ie the debate process. And according to Rule 379 and Rule 382 of the Conduct of Business Rules, the complete account of each meeting of the Lok Sabha is prepared and distributed at the end of the proceedings. The Lok Sabha Secretariat, under the authority of the Speaker, prepares a debate report as per its guidelines.

Parliamentary committee

Parliamentary committees play a very important role in the parliamentary system. Parliament is a strong link between the executive and the general public. These days the legislature has a lot of work and has limited time to deal with them, so assigning certain functions of the assembly to committees has become a common practice.

It has become even more essential that the committee has expertise in relation to a case that has been received. In a committee, the matter is discussed in detail, and in-depth in a relatively calm atmosphere, ideas are expressed freely.

The committees assist the legislature in discharging its duties and regulating its functions effectively, expeditiously, and efficiently. The Parliament, through committees, exercises its control and influence over the administration. Parliamentary committees have a salutary effect on the executive.

Any parliamentary committee is appointed or elected by the House, or nominated by the Speaker and acts on the direction of the Speaker and submits its report to the House or the Speaker. The Secretariat of the Committee is provided by the Lok Sabha Secretariat.

Some Indian Parliamentary system facts: 

Current parliament Lok sabha speaker of India: Om Birla,  18 June 2019 to incumbent, 17th Lok sabha speaker.
Current parliament Rajya sabha speaker of India: M. Venkaiah Naidu, 11 August 2017 onwards.
Current Rajya Sabha Leader of the House: Thawar Chand Gehlot, BJP 11 June 2019.
Current Lok Sabha Leader: Narendra Damodardas Modi, BJP 26 May 2014.
Current Lok Sabha Opposition Leader: Vacant

Lok Sabha Seats: 

NDA - 334

BJP - 303, JD(U)- 15, LJP - 6, AD(S) - 2, RLP - 1, AJSU - 1, AIADMK - 1, NDPP - 1, NPP- 1, MNF - 1, SKM - 1, IND - 1, 

Opposition (206)

UPA - 91

INC - 51, DMK - 24, NCP - 5, JKNC - 3, IUML - 3, AIUDF - 1, JMM - 1, RSP - 1, VCK - 1, IND - 1

Non-Aligned - 115

 AITC - 22, YSRCP - 21, SHS - 18, BJD - 12, BSP - 10, TRS - 9, SP - 5, TDP - 3, CPI(M) - 3, AIMIM - 2, CPI - 2, SAD - 2, AAP - 1, JD(S) - 1, KC(M) - 1, NPF - 1, IND - 2

Lok Shaba Address: Lok Sabha, Sansad Bhavan, Sansad Marg, New Delhi, India – 110 001
Official Website: http://loksabha.nic.in/

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